Avishalom Tor

Professor of Law
Director, Research Program on Law and Market Behavior (ND LAMB)
Global Professor of Law, University of Haifa Faculty of Law

Office: 3163 Eck Hall of Law
Phone: 574.631.2537
Fax: 574.631.4197
Email: ator@nd.edu
Staff Assistant: Debbie Sumption
CV: View
SSRN: View

Professor Avishalom Tor’s research focuses on the study of competition and cooperation in market settings and the legal rules and institutions that shape such market behavior. After receiving his doctorate from Harvard Law School, Avishalom was a Visiting Research Professor at George Mason University School of Law, an Adviser and Consultant to Commissioner Harbour at the Federal Trade Commission on various matters of antitrust law and economics, and a Visiting Professor at the University of Hamburg. Before joining the Notre Dame law faculty, Tor was a Senior Lecturer and co-director of the Forum on Law and Markets at the University of Haifa Faculty of Law, where he was recently appointed a Global Professor of Law. He is also the past Secretary and Management Board member of the European Association of Law and Economics and a board member of a number of international competition law institutes.

Tor teaches in the areas of antitrust, corporate law, and behavioral law and economics. In addition to basic courses in these areas, Tor has taught various advanced courses and seminars, including, most recently, “Antitrust, Technology, and Intellectual Property,” “Corporate Governance,” and “Markets, Regulation, and Rationality.” His interdisciplinary work has been published in legal, decision making, psychological, and economic journals, such as the Michigan Law Review, Duke Law Journal, Texas Law Review, Antitrust Law Journal, the Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics, and Psychological Science. Tor’s research has won grants and awards both domestically and abroad, and received extensive coverage from international media outlets including the Economist, Boston Globe, U.S. News and World Report, and others.

Courses Taught

LAW 70101 - Business Associations
LAW 70117 – Antitrust Law
LAW 73117 – Antitrust, Technology, and Intellectual Property
LAW 70902 – Behavioral Analysis of Law
LAW 73126 – Seminar: Corporate Governance


Legal Research

The Next Generation of Behavioural Law and Economics in European Perspectives on Behavioural Law and Economics (Klaus Mathis ed., forthcoming).

Understanding Behavioral Antitrust, 92 TEXAS LAW REVIEW (forthcoming 2014).

The Market, The Firm, and Behavioral Antitrust in THE OXFORD HANDBOOK OF BEHAVIORAL ECONOMICS AND THE LAW (forthcoming 2013).

The Psychology of Competition: A Social Comparison Perspective, Perspectives on Psychological Science, 8(6), 634-650 (2013) (with Stephen M. Garcia & Tyrone M. Schiff).

The Innocence Effect, 62 DUKE LAW JOURNAL 343 (2012) (with Oren Gazal-Ayal).

Behavioral Antitrust: A New Approach to the Rule of Reason after_ Leegin, 2011 UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS LAW REVIEW 805 (2011) (with William Rinner).

Foreward: Advances in the Behavioral Analysis of Law: Markets, Institutions, and Contracts, 74 LAW & CONTEMPORARY PROBLEMS i (2011) (symposium introduction).

Whether and When to Debias through Law, 12 LAW AND BUSINESS 41 (2010) [In Hebrew].

Unilateral, Anticompetitive Acquisitions of Dominance or Monopoly Power, 76 ANTITRUST LAW JOURNAL 847 (2010).

Introduction: Expansion and Contraction in Monopolization Law, 76 ANTITRUST LAW JOURNAL 653 (2010) (with Michal S. Gal & Spencer Weber Waller).

Fairness and the Willingness to Accept Plea Bargain Offers, 7 JOURNAL OF EMPIRICAL LEGAL STUDIES 97 (2010) (with Oren Gazal-Ayal & Stephen M. Garcia).

The Impact of Innocence on Plea Bargaining: Empirical Findings, Psychological Insights, and Normative Implications, 39 MISHPATIM: THE HEBREW UNIVERSITY LAW REVIEW 115 (2009) (with Oren Gazal-Ayal) [In Hebrew].

The Methodology of the Behavioral Analysis of Law, 4 HAIFA LAW REVIEW 237 (2008).

Comment: On Experimental Law and Economics and Default Breach Remedies, 163 JOURNAL OF INSTITUTIONAL AND THEORETICAL ECONOMICS 26 (2007).

Overcoming Impediments to Information Sharing, 55 ALABAMA LAW REVIEW 231 (2004) (with Amitai Aviram).

Illustrating a Behaviorally-Informed Approach to Antitrust Law: Section 2 Predation and Beyond, 18 ANTITRUST 52 (2003).

Incentives to Create under a "Lifetime-Plus-Years" Copyright Duration: Lessons from a Behavioral Economic Analysis for_ Eldred v. Ashcroft, in Symposium: Eldred v. Ashcroft: Intellectual Property, Congressional Power, and the Constitution, 36 LOYOLA OF LOS ANGELES LAW REVIEW 437 (2002) (with Dotan Oliar).

The Fable of Entry: Bounded Rationality, Market Discipline, and Legal Policy, 101 MICHIGAN LAW REVIEW 482 (2002).

Behavioral Research

The Psychology of Competition: A Social Comparison Perspective, 8 PERSPECTIVES ON PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE (forthcoming 2013) (with Stephen M. Garcia & Tyrone M. Schiff).

The N-Effect: Beyond Winning Probabilities, 21 PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE 748 (2010) (with Stephen M. Garcia).

The Price of Equality: Suboptimal Resource Allocations across Social Categories, 20 BUSINESS ETHICS QUARTERLY 75 (2010) (with Stephen M. Garcia, Max H. Bazerman, Shirli Kopelman, and Dale T. Miller).

The N-Effect: More Competitors, Less Competition,: 20 PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE 871 (2009) (with Stephen M. Garcia).

Rankings, Standards, and Competition: Task vs. Scale Comparisons, 102 ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR AND HUMAN DECISION PROCESSES 95 (2007) (with Stephen M. Garcia).

Ranks and Rivals: A Theory of Competition, 32 PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN 970 (2006) (with Stephen M. Garcia & Richard Gonzalez).

Profit Maximization versus Disadvantageous Inequality in Choice Behavior: The Impact of Self Categorization, 18 JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL DECISION MAKING 187 (2005) (with Stephen M. Garcia, Max Bazerman & Dale T. Miller).

Focusing Failures in Competitive Environments: Explaining Decision Errors in the Monty Hall Game, the Acquiring a Company Problem, and Multi-Party Ultimatums, 16 JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL DECISION MAKING 353 (2003) (with Max H. Bazerman).

Professional Articles

A Behavioral Approach to Antitrust Law and Economics, 14 CONSUMER POLICY REVIEW 2 (2004).

On the Behavioral Analysis of Law, UNIVERSITY OF HAIFA MAGAZINE 26 (Fall 2005) [In Hebrew].

Areas of Expertise

  • Antitrust
  • Business Associations
  • Corporate Governance
  • Law & Economics